Catalysts are substances that increase the rate of a chemical reaction without themselves being consumed or changed in the reaction. The term catalyst was first used in 1835 by Swedish chemist Jöns Jakob Berzelius. Berzelius proved that the catalysts act so as to unbind the reactants and thus help the reaction to occur more rapidly.

Some catalysts slow down the reaction rate. These are called negative catalysts. However, most catalysts increase the reaction rate. Catalysts that increase the reaction rate are called positive catalysts. Catalytic processes are widely used in modern industry, mainly in chemical processes and in production of petroleum products.

Catalysts are divided into two groups:

  • Heterogeneous catalysts are generally solid substances and the reactive components are generally in gas or liquid form.
  • Homogeneous catalysts are in the same phase as the reaction components.

The basis for the huge potential of the CatLiq Process is the catalysts developed and owned by Altaca Energy. Thanks to these special catalysts, used in the correct amounts, the formation process of oil, normally taking place over hundreds of thousands of years by natural means, is replicated in the CatLiq reactors, with the whole reaction being completed in less than 30 minutes.